Thursday, March 12, 2020

Signs, Symbols and Portents Essay Example

Signs, Symbols and Portents Essay Example Signs, Symbols and Portents Essay Signs, Symbols and Portents Essay Essay Topic: Literature Signs and symbols can be seen in all kinds of literature. Simply put, they are a concrete representation of an abstract concept. What they represent is not always obvious: they can have one or several meanings, and their meaning can change throughout the story. Sometimes, they are used by the author to foreshadow an event. Interpreting signs and symbols can be a challenge for a reader, but it is a rewarding one: it makes for a more profound and interesting reading. In this essay, I will discuss the role of signs and symbols in the work of Nathaniel Hawthorne and Herman Melville. Nathaniel Hawthornes The Scarlet Letter was first published in 1850. It is set in Boston, in the 17th century. It is the story of a woman, Hester Prynne, who has been punished by society because of her adultery. She has been forced to wear a scarlet A on her chest as a reminder of the sin she has committed. This scarlet letter, a written sign, is the novels main subject: it is also its main symbol. Charles Feidelson writes: The symbolistic method is inherent in the subject, just as the subject of symbolism is inherent in the method (Feidelson 1953: 13). Hawthorne also uses the main characters as symbols, pointing out the ways in which the scarlet letter affects them. Hester Prynne is condemned to wear the scarlet letter for the rest of her life because she has given birth to a child, Pearl, who is not her husbands. The fact that she has been punished in such a way tells us much about Puritan society: people were generally very pious and prude, and adultery was considered to be a great sin (Durst Johnson 1995). Hester could easily have fled from Boston and thrown away her scarlet letter, but she chooses to stay put and serve her punishment. The red A represents her sin, but it also symbolises the features of human nature that are not socially acceptable in Puritan America, such as passion (Feidelson 1953, Durst Johnson 1995). By continuing to wear it, even when she is told that she is allowed to take it off, she is making a statement. She is showing that she does not intend to change, and that she believes that the society around her should change, instead. She makes no excuses for her behaviour and devotes herself to humanitarian work. Eventually, people see her under a different light: the red A that they used to associate with something devilish acquires a much more positive meaning. Hester is now seen as an Angel, or as Able. Soon after her condemnation, Hester embroiders the scarlet letter with golden thread. Doing so could mean two things: either she is mocking her punishment, or she could be trying to embellish the truth. She does not want to accept her passionate nature. This is very Puritanistic of her: the 19th century was the Age of the Euphemism (Durst Johnson 1995: ix) in America. People did not die, they passed away; a man was not drunk, he was unwell. Though Hester appears to accept her punishment, it can sometimes becomes a hard cross to bear. Hester herself is a symbol: she represents human nature. She is passionate, not infallible, and acknowledges it. At the same time, the way she has been raised has shaped her personality. It sometimes keeps her from fully embracing the aspects of her character that society finds objectionable. Nevertheless, her punishment has made her stronger, and more understanding of humanity. Her charitable work is a proof of this. Hester is a survivor. Dimmesdale, Pearls father, is a young minister in the community. The red A on Hesters chest could stand for Arthur, his first name. He also has a scarlet letter on his heart, a psychosomatic mark (Feidelson 1953: 11), but refuses to acknowledge it. He is a pious man who believes that there should be no room in his life for passion, but his scarlet letter is a permanent reminder that he cannot escape this trait of his personality. The letter tortures him, and he constantly seeks to punish himself. His health deteriorates throughout the novel. He refuses to acknowledge Pearl as his daughter until the very end, and when he does, he proclaims himself to be the one sinner of the world (Hawthorne 2002). He dies minutes after having shown his scarlet letter to the world. Dimmesdale is a symbol of Puritan society and its unwillingness to accept all aspects of human nature. Pearl, Hester and Dimmesdales daughter, has a symbolic role until the very end of the novel. She is an uncontrollable and mischievous child, and she is described as an demon offspring by the narrator. Comparisons between Pearl and the scarlet letter are numerous and obvious. Feidelson writes: Pearl, as Hawthorne reiterates at tiresome length, is the scarlet letter both physically and mentally (1953: 11). Pearl is obsessed with her mothers scarlet letter. In Chapter XV, she makes a green A out of eelgrass and puts it on her own chest. To Pearl, the letter is natural, and does not represent anything evil. She seeks the truth about it, and is constantly asking her mother questions, something that makes Hester uncomfortable. She is also the hardest truth-sayer in the novel (Durst Johnson 1995: 6), and knows the truth about Dimmesdale instinctively. Until he confesses to being her father, she calls him Mr. Black and refuses to kiss him. Throughout the novel, there is an intense connection between Pearl and truth. This indicates that the scarlet letter, which is symbolised by Pearl, represents the whole truth about human nature. Hawthorne writes: Be true! Be true! Be true! Show freely to the world, if not your worst, yet some trait whereby the worst may be inferred! (Hawthorne 2002: 269). By using the scarlet letter and his characters as symbols, Hawthorne is urging people to acknowledge every aspect of their own humanity (Durst Johnson 1995). Moby-Dick was published in 1851. Its author, Herman Melville, dedicated the novel to Nathaniel Hawthorne, who he admired greatly. In his tale of a whaling expedition gone wrong, Melville makes extensive use of signs and symbols. Ishmael, a member of the ships crew and the storys narrator, is a visionary (Feidelson 1953). He transforms the physical world into a symbolic world for the reader. The symbols used in Moby-Dick are most often more complex and ambiguous than the ones used in The Scarlet Letter. One of the major symbols in Moby-Dick is the whaling ship, the Pequod. It has been painted black, and is decorated with bones and teeth that have dissected out of dead whales. In addition to this, it has been named after an extinct Native American tribe. Though Ishmael seems to be very satisfied with the Pequod, the way he describes it makes it sound spooky. The Pequods appearance symbolises death, and its name makes the reader realise that the ship is doomed to sink. Ishmael says of the ship that it is a cannibal of a craft (Melville 1998: 61): much of the components of the ship are taken from whale parts, and it is a ship whose main purpose is killing whales. He is pointing out how men use nature for their own ends, and have no moral qualms about using a whale to kill another whale. The crew of the Pequod is made up of a variety of people from all over the world. Ishmael notes that most of the crew is made up of men who were born outside of America, but that the officer positions are generally occupied by Americans. He says: the native American liberally provides the brain, the rest of the world generously supplying the muscles (Melville 1998: 106). Melville could be commenting on social class differences between Whites and Blacks in the United States, or even on slavery. Though Ishmael seems to believe that the rest of the world is generously providing the muscles, it is probably fair to speculate that many of them would rather be given the chance to use their brains. Moby-Dick was published just ten years before the American Civil War broke out, and racial issues were extremely relevant. In spite of all this, the members of the crew seem to be getting along, and work well as a team. This could represent the American melting pot: people from every corner of the world having come to build a country and pulling together to make it happen. Melville had great hopes for American democracy, and this is one of the reasons why he wrote Moby-Dick (Selby 1998). Ahab, the ships captain, embodies an extreme version of a classic American type: the monomaniac, who has only one interest and devotes all his energy to it (Brodhead 1986). He dedicates his ship and his whole crew to his own personal mission: killing the great white whale, Moby Dick. He does not care whether lives are lost in the process, and he rules his ship like a tyrannical dictator would. D. H. Lawrence said of the sinking of the Pequod that it was the sinking of the white American soul (Selby 1998). By making Ahabs plan fail, Melville is showing the public what can happen when a monomaniac type such as Ahab goes too far. Moby Dick is central in Melvilles novel. It is a white whale of an extraordinary size: it is the most solid of physical things and the most meaningful of symbols (Feidelson 1953: 184). Moby Dick means something different to every character in the novel. To Starbuck, the first mate, it is just another whale, though a very dangerous one. He is irritated at the vendetta Ahab has against it, and wishes that the crew could work on its true mission, which is to hunt whales for their oil. Ishmael is fascinated by the whale, and terrified by its whiteness, as white is the visible absence of color, and at the same time the concrete of all colors (Melville 1998: 175). Ishmael does not know whether the whale is just a meaningless big fish colorless or a mystical being full of complex meanings, at once good and evil. To the rest of the crew, tales about the white whale are a diversion from their dangerous jobs, and a way to confront their own fears. Finally, to Ahab, it is the ultimate symbol of evil in this world. Moby Dick is the reason why he has lost a leg, and he is determined to seek revenge. D. H. Lawrence has suggested that the white whale could be some kind of a phallic symbol (Selby 1998). The whale has such strength and power that Ahabs desire to kill the whale could be a quest for acquiring absolute potency (Brodhead 1986). Ahab never succeeds in killing Moby Dick: instead, it is Moby Dick that sinks the ship. It is the revenge of nature over men, who keep trying to destroy it. After discussing the role of symbols and signs in The Scarlet Letter and Moby-Dick, I must agree with Nick Selby, who writes that symbolism, and the loose romanticism upon which it depends, is the key expressive tool of the American Renaissance' (1998: 55). There is more symbolism in these two literary works than in any other works I have studied this year. The symbols are rich in meaning and are given great importance. Spending time to interpret them is essential to a proper understanding of the text.

Tuesday, February 25, 2020

History Assignment Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 500 words - 7

History - Assignment Example Joel Kotkin insisted that cities developed sacred functions as a very deep sign that they represented divine power. This enabled the cities to civilise and develop as much as they could. He gave examples of sacred cities which included Mesopotamia, the Indus Valley and China. Commercial cities included Detroit, shanghai and Carthage. Secure cities can be identified by their overall success currently and they include the cities of London and the United States (Tosh, p 33). Lewis Mumford noted that cities contributed significantly to human civilization. This was by providing the podium that would ensure that the architectural designs that made up cities were a greater representation of what human civilization was all about. He goes ahead to note that the creation of these cities presented a myriad of social problems that continued to threaten the human civilization process. He constantly hoped that over the years the cities would represent the uniqueness of each design and show the deep rooted spiritual values that were practised by the community or society (Tosh, p 19). In the ancient world, cities were places for trade, worship and industrial activities. They developed as a result of the very many needs and expectations that the communities had. They had the overall aim of strengthening these wants and needs. These functions are very similar because modern day cities are also created with the sole aim of meeting specific needs in society. It was therefore very necessary to have specific resources in the form of construction materials, funds and manpower to construct these cities. This had to be coupled with powerful policies that would ensure their overall maintenance from time to time. Hammurabi ensured that he created very simple laws and policies that were to be used to create an orderly atmosphere in urban cities (Tosh, p 43). Romans introduced very many architectural features in their constructions. This included the use of the most modern

Sunday, February 9, 2020

Middle Class Societies Of America And England Essay

Middle Class Societies Of America And England - Essay Example Therefore Roosevelt became the first president to support the labor and assigned the government a direct role and duty to all the people. The new women's colleges were opened and there the female reformers were educated. These females who were white middle class young women handled the "problem " of Immigrant, who constituted "dark skinned" Italians, peasant Jews and immigrants from southeastern Europe. The middle class women were barred to possess the professional educational qualifications pursue Consumer's League, and "Americanizing" centers known as settlement houses. These organizations targeted to wipe off the corruption and vice bred by the men their career. So, the women formed into groups and had built themselves as associations to take active part in the public life. Some of the associations are Women's Trade Union League, the Women's Christian Temperance Union, and the National. The women succeeded in their campaign to get the right to vote. But their battle of suffrage lasted for as long as from 1848 to 1920, in the year 1920 nineteenth amendment granted 26 million women, half of the nations population, the right to vote. The Fourteenth Amendment sanctioned the citizenship to the blacks. The Civil Rights Law of the 1960s was stepping stone for those who fought for America's promise of equal rights for all. The movement of women, for suffrage began at Seneca Falls. The American Society challenged severely the efforts of women that they cannot cross the threshold of men. But as the situation prolonged, the women got educated, and their movement turned out to be a respectable one. By 1910, the movement developed into a mass movement. In England too it was the same condition, the women were aggressive to sweep out their miseries and were carrying their movement for fundamental rights. In both the nations, by 1919, the Amendment Act was passed for women granting their right to vote. Detroit, the city was known as the "arsenal of Democracy" during the Second World War. The city of Detroit required a large number of labor who came from Africa. They were not given accommodation and like this the riots erupted which turned to be the bloodiest in the history of he nation. This racial conflict has begun very long past in 1863 and lasted till 1941. The racial riots have a long history in Detroit. There were about 200,000 black labors, constricted to sixty square blocks and compelled to live under dreadful sanitary conditions. Awfully the place was named as Paradise Valley while it was a hell for the inhabitants. There was an integrated amusement park. It was known as Belle Isle. This was the place where the Detroit riots began at this particular spot. The rumors still aggravated the situation and mainly because of the police sergeant spread some rumors regarding a women and her baby over the Belle Isle bridge, the black retaliated, looted, destroyed white owned stores, white skinned people were attacked without discrimination. Similar way white also retaliated in the same way. The situation continued without any holds, Detroit became practically a hellhole until Mayor Edward J. Jeffries called more than six thousand federal army troops was stationed throughout the Detroit city. Practically Detroit city was shutdown, streets deserted, schools deserted, no

Thursday, January 30, 2020

Principles of Insurance Essay Example for Free

Principles of Insurance Essay 1. Principle of Uberrimae fidei (Utmost Good Faith) Principle of Uberrimae fidei (a Latin phrase), or in simple english words, the Principle of Utmost Good Faith, is a very basic and first primary principle of insurance. According to this principle, the insurance contract must be signed by both parties (i.e insurer and insured) in an absolute good faith or belief or trust. The person getting insured must willingly disclose and surrender to the insurer his complete true information regarding the subject matter of insurance. The insurers liability gets void (i.e legally revoked or cancelled) if any facts, about the subject matter of insurance are either omitted, hidden, falsified or presented in a wrong manner by the insured. The principle of Uberrimae fidei applies to all types of insurance contracts. 2. Principle of Insurable Interest The principle of insurable interest states that the person getting insured must have insurable interest in the object of insurance. A person has an insurable interest when the physical existence of the insured object gives him some gain but its non-existence will give him a loss. In simple words, the insured person must suffer some financial loss by the damage of the insured object. For example :- The owner of a taxicab has insurable interest in the taxicab because he is getting income from it. But, if he sells it, he will not have an insurable interest left in that taxicab. From above example, we can conclude that, ownership plays a very crucial role in evaluating insurable interest. Every person has an insurable interest in his own life. A merchant has insurable interest in his business of trading. Similarly, a creditor has insurable interest in his debtor. 3. Principle of Indemnity Indemnity means security, protection and compensation given against damage, loss or injury. According to the principle of indemnity, an insurance contract is signed only for getting protection against unpredicted financial losses arising due to future uncertainties. Insurance contract is not made for making profit else its sole purpose is to give compensation in case of any damage or loss. In an insurance contract, the amount of compensations paid is in proportion to the incurred losses. The amount of compensations is limited to the amount assured or the actual losses, whichever is less. The compensation must not be less or more than the actual damage. Compensation is not paid if the specified loss does not happen due to a particular reason during a specific time period. Thus, insurance is only for giving protection against losses and not for making profit. However, in case of life insurance, the principle of indemnity does not apply because the value of human life cannot be measured in terms of money. 4. Principle of Contribution Principle of Contribution is a corollary of the principle of indemnity. It applies to all contracts of indemnity, if the insured has taken out more than one policy on the same subject matter. According to this principle, the insured can claim the compensation only to the extent of actual loss either from all insurers or from any one insurer. If one insurer pays full compensation then that insurer can claim proportionate claim from the other insurers. For example :- Mr. John insures his property worth $ 100,000 with two insurers AIG Ltd. for $ 90,000 and MetLife Ltd. for $ 60,000. Johns actual property destroyed is worth $ 60,000, then Mr. John can claim the full loss of $ 60,000 either from AIG Ltd. or MetLife Ltd., or he can claim $ 36,000 from AIG Ltd. and $ 24,000 from Metlife Ltd. So, if the insured claims full amount of compensation from one insurer then he cannot claim the same compensation from other insurer and make a profit. Secondly, if one insurance company pays the full c ompensation then it can recover the proportionate contribution from the other insurance company. 5. Principle of Subrogation Subrogation means substituting one creditor for another. Principle of Subrogation is an extension and another corollary of the principle of indemnity. It also applies to all contracts of indemnity. According to the principle of subrogation, when the insured is compensated for the losses due to damage to his insured property, then the ownership right of such property shifts to the insurer. This principle is applicable only when the damaged property has any value after the event causing the damage. The insurer can benefit out of subrogation rights only to the extent of the amount he has paid to the insured as compensation. For example :- Mr. John insures his house for $ 1 million. The house is totally destroyed by the negligence of his neighbour Mr.Tom. The insurance company shall settle the claim of Mr. John for $ 1 million. At the same time, it can file a law suit against Mr.Tom for $ 1.2 million, the market value of the house. If insurance company wins the case and collects $ 1.2 mi llion from Mr. Tom, then the insurance company will retain $ 1 million (which it has already paid to Mr. John) plus other expenses such as court fees. The balance amount, if any will be given to Mr. John, the insured. 6. Principle of Loss Minimization According to the Principle of Loss Minimization, insured must always try his level best to minimize the loss of his insured property, in case of uncertain events like a fire outbreak or blast, etc. The insured must take all possible measures and necessary steps to control and reduce the losses in such a scenario. The insured must not neglect and behave irresponsibly during such events just because the property is insured. Hence it is a responsibility of the insured to protect his insured property and avoid further losses. For example :- Assume, Mr. Johns house is set on fire due to an electric short-circuit. In this tragic scenario, Mr. John must try his level best to stop fire by all possible means, like first calling nearest fire department office, asking neighbours for emergency fire extinguishers, etc. He must not remain inactive and watch his house burning hoping, Why should I worry? Ive insured my house. 7. Principle of Causa Proxima (Nearest Cause) Principle of Causa Proxima (a Latin phrase), or in simple english words, the Principle of Proximate (i.e Nearest) Cause, means when a loss is caused by more than one causes, the proximate or the nearest or the closest cause should be taken into consideration to decide the liability of the insurer. The principle states that to find out whether the insurer is liable for the loss or not, the proximate (closest) and not the remote (farest) must be looked into. For example :- A cargo ships base was punctured due to rats and so sea water entered and cargo was damaged. Here there are two causes for the damage of the cargo ship (i) The cargo ship getting punctured beacuse of rats, and (ii) The sea water entering ship through puncture. The risk of sea water is insured but the first cause is not. The nearest cause of damage is sea water which is insured and therefore the insurer must pay the compensation. However, in case of life insurance, the principle of Causa Proxima does not apply. Whatever may be the reason of death (whether a natural death or an unnatural death) the insurer is liable to pay the amount of insurance.

Wednesday, January 22, 2020

Litter Control :: Environment Ecology Littering

Litter Control Litter control is not only an important issue to me but to this state and country. Programs such as Keep America Beautiful and adopt-a-highway are designed to promote a clean environment by educating people and creating projects to help improve the environment (Keeping America Beautiful). Growing up I learned the importance of having a clean environment. It improves the quality of life, it increases your confidence level, and it makes you proud of your community. I feel strongly about this issue because there are a lot of people who just do not care. South Carolina has a goal of making people aware of the environment. The state government has started a campaign called Palmetto Pride (Diane Marlow). The promotion tactics that they use includes South Carolina officials and well-known people promoting beautification of the state. I also have a goal of making people aware of the environment and I decided that creating a project with children would be very effective. I always thought children were excellent people to work with. They are eager to learn and to show enthusiasm. My plan was to work with the children of St. Lawrence’s Place. That idea was sparked from my University 101 instructor. There I hoped to design a trash-pickup program similar to the one that the adopt-a-highway program had. Along with the program, I would have educated the children about litter prevention and the importance of a clean environment. Instead of walking along a highway collect trash we would wander around St. Lawrence’s Place looking for trash and items to be recycled. Unfortunately, the program could not be carried out because of scheduling problems. Luckily, there was an adopt-a-highway project going on in my hometown during the time of fall break. Adopt-a-highway is a program of public service for volunteers to collect trash along the highways of America. The group agrees to pick up trash at the minimum of three times per year. There is an age limit for this program. Those that are interested must be at least twelve years of age to participate in the trash pick-up. The adopt-a-highway program also educates people about litter prevention and recycling (Adopt-a-highway). On October 15, I arrived on Main Street with some of my friends and former classmates. Main Street is a very busy road that connects to a highway.

Monday, January 13, 2020

Confidentiality and Minors

Confidentiality is an essential component to the counseling process. It allows for the client to build a trustful relationship with the counselor. â€Å" Counselors regard the promise of confidentiality to be essential for the development of client trust† (Glosoff & Pate, 2002). Most individuals that seek counseling services assume that what is discussed in the counseling sessions with the counselor will be kept in confidence with limited exceptions. These exceptions become a complex balancing act for the counselor especially when their clients are minors. Confidentiality is a widely held ethical standard a variously accorded legal right of clients and responsibility of counselors (American Counseling Association, 2005: American School Counseling Association, 2010). According to the Ethical Standards for School Counselors and the Code of Ethics and Standards for Counseling (2010), both specify that counselors are ethically required to take appropriate action and breach confide ntiality in certain circumstances involving minors.Counselors are required to breach confidentiality if there is imminent danger to self and others, if there is suspected child abuse or neglect or to protect a vulnerable client from danger. There are other limitations to confidentiality and minors as well. Some of these limitations involve parents and their right to know what is happening in counseling sessions between the therapist and their child.This problem is one that schools counselors and clinical therapists must face when counseling minors. Counselors in both clinical and school settings are faced with ethical issues with regards to confidentiality each time they encounter a client that is a minor. School Counselors have a variety of roles and responsibilities to students, teachers, parents and administrators (Iyer, McGregor & Connor, 2010).According to the American School Counseling Association (2004), it is the responsibility of the school counselor to help a child develop effective coping skills, identify personal strengths and assets, recognize and express feelings and provide a foundation for the child’s personal and social growth as he or she progresses from school to adulthood as apart of the process. School Counselors must collaborate with all persons involved with the minor in this process, which usually includes the parents and teachers. SchoolCounselors are also sometimes asked to be apart of child study teams within the school, which can be very beneficial to the students and those involved in their lives. School Counselors must follow the American School Counseling Association’s ethical standards for School Counselors regarding confidentiality. In beginning sessions between the client and the school counselor confidentiality should be discussed and the conditions in which it may have to be breached. According to Lazovsky (2010), The management of student confidentiality has been described as the primary ethical dilemma of sch ool counselors.There are various ethical and legal issues that arise for School Counselors when dealing with confidentiality. School Counselors are required ethically to report when a student engages in clear and imminent danger to themselves or others. Some school counselors base their decision to breach confidentiality on how imminent the danger is that is being presented by the situation. â€Å"Most counselors would agree parents should be informed of drug experimentation by an 8 year old. Many however, would disagree to tell parents that a 16 year old client reported occasional experimentation with marijuana† (Glosoff & Pate, 2002).This example shows that school counselors should use discretion when deciding to breach confidentiality. These two minor clients are different but each situation has a variety of ways that it could be handled. According to Lazovky (2008), school counselors are advised to consult with supervisors and colleagues before making decisions based on b reaching confidentiality. They should also know their state policies and laws in the school jurisdiction. Another ethical and legal issue that can arise for school counselors counseling minors in relation to confidentiality is the disclosure of student provided information to parents.Privileged communication is apart of confidentiality. Privileged communication allows for clients to ask counselors to keep their communications and records of their counseling sessions confidential. Privilege belongs to the client and the counselor asserts privilege for the client. According to Glosoff (2002), the already complex issue of privileges communication for school counselors is made even more complex by who has the privilege when counseling a minor. Parents of minors rather than minor clients are assumed to control privilege. School Counselors are sometimes subpoenaed for court appearances when the parent’s do not agree on whether the counselors presence is necessary in the testimony o r a parental custody dispute may be the heart of the legal proceeding. The ACA and ASCA recognize that school counselors have limits to their ability to protect client confidences. School Counselors must not only be mindful of their ethical duties but cooperate with any laws that that apply to them as well. The Family Education Rights and Privacy Act (FERPA) establishes that parents control the rights of students under the age of 18 (Iyer, McGregor & Connor, 2010).This includes any of the student’s records such as grades, awards and date of birth. Decisions about the release of these records are based under exceptions under FERPA and also the parent’s consent. However, most records regarding the student are held in safe places where other school officials do not have or need access. Another law that school counselors must keep in mind is HIPAA. This law was enacted to protect patient’s health information. In relation to school counselors, the student’s me dical records are being protected. The issue of confidentiality in Child Study Teams has become an ethical dilemma for many school counselors.The school counselor must decide on what to disclose and what information to inquire about based on each member’s rights and responsibilities. Deciding what to reveal and what to keep confidential can be a hard and difficult task for school counselors. Clinical Therapists face many ethical and legal issues with regards to confidentiality as well. Clinical Therapists are different from School Counselors in their role with minors because the only stakeholder involved with the therapist in most cases is the parent. According to Ellis (2009), minor’s right to confidentiality is an area at times, which ethics and the law are in conflict.One of these ethical dilemmas arises in the area client privilege. In the case of minors, this privilege extends to the parents who act as representatives to their dependent children. Clinical Therapis t struggle with maintaining confidentiality for their minor clients especially when the law is on the side of the parents because they have the right to know. Stone & Issacs (2003) suggest that in order to deal with ethical issues regarding confidentiality and minors therapists should prepare a written professional services agreement which provides details on the limits and conditions of confidentiality.At this point the parent can be involved in their child’s treatment in various ways. One of the ways that parents can be involved is through periodical family sessions. In the clinical counseling setting, there are often conflicts between duties of confidentiality and the need to share information with parents or other agencies that provide care for a child or adolescent. There can also be ethical conflicts between duties of confidentiality, grounded in respect for patient autonomy, and both statutory and moral obligations to report child abuse, which are grounded in duties of care and protection (Kaplan, 2005).One issue which troubles some clinical therapists is a statutory obligation to report consensual sexual relationships that adolescents are engaged in with adults irrespective of whether they are clinically judged to be abusive, because they can be framed in many child protection statutes or guidance as constituting abuse. (Ellis, 2009). There are some similarities between confidentiality and counseling minors in both school and clinical settings. One similarity is that in both settings counselors must follow the same ethical guidelines for breaching confidentiality.Breaching confidentiality is allowed by ethical codes in special or extreme circumstances (Lazovsky, 2008). In both settings counselors must carefully deliberate over the circumstances that are presented to them by the minor client in the counseling sessions. The counselor should then decide whether or not to breach confidentiality. This ethical dilemma is a difficult issue that many co unselors are faced with in both clinical and school settings.Another similarity between counseling minors in both school and clinical settings is that counselors must often consult with other staff members in both settings for the benefit of the children that they serve. It is important for counselors to educate other non-mental health staff members that they must keep confidential any personal information they learn about children as a result of their professional positions (Rehmley & Herley, 2010). If any information were to be disclosed outside of the school or clinical settings, it could be lead to grounds for a lawsuit.There are some differences between confidentiality and counseling minors in both school and clinical settings as well. One difference is that counselors in clinical settings encounter fewer ethical issues around confidentiality and minors because parents usually have given legal consent for the counselor to work with the client. However in the school setting, Reh mley & Herley (2010) state that the counselor often does not have a legal obligation to obtain parental permission before counseling students unless there is a federal or state statute to the contrary.Another difference between confidentiality and minors in the school and clinical setting is in the clinical setting the counseling process may be limited to the counselor, the minor client and the parents. Most minor clients who are placed in clinical treatment facilities will be unable to make crucial decisions for themselves. The privilege of informed consent will be given to the parent and the parent will operate in the child’s best interests (Glosoff & Pate, 2002). Counselors in both clinical and school settings find the ethical and legal issues of confidentiality difficult because there are constant conflicts between the law and ethics.One issue that counselors find causes tension between law and ethics is whether children have the right to enter into a counseling relations hip without parental consent. According to Rehmley & Herley (2010), every child has a moral right to privacy in the counseling relationship. Kaplan (2005) believes that children should have the same rights to confidentiality as adult clients. However, counselors constantly struggle between the ethical obligation of privacy to their minor clients and their legal obligation to the parents of the same minor clients to keep their child protected and safe.There are some ways that counselors are able to deal with these ethical and legal dilemmas regarding confidentiality and minors. One recommendation that was made by Iyer, Baxter-McGregor & Connor (2010) is to develop and maintain a strong informed consent policy. Informed consent is a process that is an ongoing process and should begin before the counseling process begins. According to Glosoff & Pate (2002), it is beneficial in both settings to develop a written informed consent policy so that it can be given to parents and anyone else who is involved in the clients counseling process.This is beneficial because all parties involved in the process will know about confidentiality and also what to expect. Another recommendation that was suggested by Iyer, Baxter-McGregor & Connor (2010) is to educate all members that are involved in the minor client’s counseling process about the importance of confidentiality. In this way there will be a reduction in the likelihood of difficult situations posed by ethical dilemmas developing in the first place. An explanation of confidentiality would be a great addition to an orientation to parents, teachers or other non-mental health professionals.They would know what to expect with regards to confidentiality in counseling sessions with minors. Another suggestion that was discussed in the literature in relation to ethical and legal dilemmas regarding confidentiality and minors is to send out educational newsletters and emails. This suggestion takes a proactive stance towards the ethical and legal issue of confidentiality and minors and it helps to avoid the possible ethical dilemma before it occurs (Glosoff &Pate, 2002).Some possible items that could be included in these newsletters or emails may be a definition of confidentiality, one’s informed consent policy, state regulations or law’s regarding confidentiality and a summary of ASCA’s and ACA’s ethics statements for counselors. Lastly, another suggestion that was discussed in the literature in relation to ethical and legal dilemmas regarding confidentiality and minors is for counselors to develop a strong network of professionals that counselors can confide in and ask advice when they encounter an ethical dilemma (Iyer, Baxter-McGregor & Connor 2010; Glosoff & Pate, 2002).This network may include school psychologists, local psychologists, counseling professionals and any who works within a similar field. According to Iyer, Baxter-McGregor & Connor (2010), a counselor may u se a common framework such Kitchener’s five moral principles regarding ethical decision making. The five moral principal’s are autonomy, justice (fairness), beneficence (doing good), non-maleficence (doing no harm) and fidelity (keeping promises).Another ethical decision making model that can be followed is by Forester-Miller and Davis which is to 1) Identify the problem, 2) Apply one’s professional code of ethics, 3) Determine the nature and decisions of the dilemma, 4) Generate potential courses of action, 5) Consider the potential consequences of all options and choose a course of action 6) Evaluate the selected course of action and 7) Implement the course of action. Counselors in both clinical and school setting have a tremendous amount of responsibility to uphold when they are counseling minors.The ethical and legal issues that arise for this group can sometimes differ and also be contradictory to each other. It is the responsibility of the counselors to pr epare themselves and all parties involved in the counseling process with the knowledge that is necessary in regards to confidentiality and minors. In many cases when the counselor is left to choose the right course of action in regards to confidentiality, the outcome will inevitable benefit the client. References American Counseling Association. (2005). Code of ethics and standards of practice (Rev. ed. ) Alexandria, VA: Author.American School Counselor Association. (2010). Ethical standards for school counselors. Retrieved from http://www. schoolcounselor. org/content. asp? contentid=17 Barnett, J. E. (2008). The ethical practice of psychotherapy: Easily within our reach. Journal Of Clinical Psychology, 64(5), 569-575. doi:10. 1002/jclp. 20473 Ellis, E. M. (2009). Should a psychotherapist be compelled to release an adolescent’s treatment records to a parent in a contested custody case?. Professional Psychology: Research And Practice, 40(6), 557-563. doi:10. 1037/a0017419 Glo soff, H. L. , & Pate, R. r. (2002).Privacy and confidentiality in school counseling. Professional School Counseling, 6(1), 20-27. Iyer, N. N. , Baxter-McGregor, J. & Connor, A. R. (2010). Ethical dilemmas for the school counselor: balancing student confidentiality and parents’ right to know. New York State School Counselor Association, 7(2), 17-22. Kaplan, A. I. (2005). Therapist-Patient Privilege: Who Owns the Privilege?. Journal Of Aggression, Maltreatment & Trauma, 11(1/2), 135-143. doi:10. 1300/J146v11n0111 Lazovsky, R. (2008). Maintaining confidentiality with minors: Dilemmas of school counselors. Professional School Counseling, 11(5), 335-346. oi:10. 5330/PSC. n. 2010-11. 335 Mitchell, C. W. , Disque, J. , & Robertson, P. (2002). When parents want to know: Responding to parental demands for confidential information. Professional School Counseling, 6(2), 156-161. Rehmley, T. P. , & Herlihy, B. (2010). Ethical, Legal and Professional Issues in Counseling. Merrill; New Yor k. Stone, C. , & Isaacs, M. L. (2003). Confidentiality with minors: The need for policy to promote and protect. The Journal Of Educational Research, 96(3), 140-150. doi:10. 1080/00220670309598802 Confidentiality and Minors By Neferteria Thomas

Sunday, January 5, 2020

Breast Cancer Treatment and Guidelines in Older Women - Free Essay Example

Sample details Pages: 4 Words: 1144 Downloads: 1 Date added: 2019/02/06 Category Medicine Essay Level High school Tags: Breast Cancer Essay Did you like this example? Many people in today’s society are getting cancer from many things we consume. There are many methods and results I will be talking about. There was a study population of 1,568 that were 55 years old or older. Don’t waste time! Our writers will create an original "Breast Cancer Treatment and Guidelines in Older Women" essay for you Create order This study was happening at M.D. Anderson Cancer Center. They treated these people at the center during the time 1997-2002 for stage Stage IIA and I. Stage I and Stage IIIA are cancers that are present and the higher the number the larger the cancer or tumor has spread. What the center did was look at the treatments to determine guidelines. The treatments they used to determine were definitive surgical therapy, adjuvant radiation therapy after breast-conserving surgery, post mastectomy radiation, adjuvant chemotherapy, and adjuvant hormonal therapy. Age, level of education, race, marital status, and disease score were included in all final people was an impact in the treatment. â€Å"Treatment dates were used to determine which guideline was applicable at the time a patient was being treated if there were any changes in treatment recommendations.† (By) Accurate surgical treatment was characterized as lumpectomy, fractional mastectomy, segmental mastectomy, altered radical mastectomy, subcutaneous mastectomy, skin-sparing mastectomy, or radical mastectomy. Many calculated investigations were performed to decide the process between age and rule agreement, change of potential factor. Results In the result about 1,568 women were included in the study. Ladies at 65 years old or older were more likely to be white, unmarried, and have only a high school education. As they believed, each older group of women had a higher had a higher percentage of women with sufficiently conditions, steady with the ageing process. â€Å"Significant differences were detected in estrogen receptor status, nuclear grade, and presence of intramammary lymphatic invasion, with older women less likely to have estrogen receptor-negative tumors, high-grade tumors, or tumors with intramammary lymphatic invasion.† (By) â€Å"The results were high for surgical therapy (90.4%), adjuvant radiation after breast-conserving surgery (94.2%), and adjuvant hormonal therapy (93.7%). However, overall concordance was lower for adjuvant chemotherapy (70.7%) and for adjuvant post mastectomy radiation (54.1%).† (By) Surgical therapy, adjuvant radiation after breast conservation, adjuvant chemo therapy, and adjuvant hormonal therapy was a low score for women. In univariate examination, low tumor arranges, tall score, and understanding age 75 year old or more seasoned was related with need of conclusive surgical treatment. Ladies with stage II or III infection at determination had 4.33 times the chances of having conclusive surgery compared with ladies with organize I disease. â€Å" Women who were age 75 years or older were also significantly less likely to receive definitive surgical therapy.† (By M.D. Anderson Cancer Center). A disease score of 1 to 2 was too related with a diminished probability of being treated with radiation. Additionally a disease score of 3 or higher was related with diminished chances of accepting radiation, but was not factually critical. Nonwhite race was associated with decreased probability of being treated with radiation after breast-conserving surgery. â€Å"In the unadjusted analysis of concordance with chemotherapy guidelines, higher clinical stage, lower comorbidity scores, estrogen receptor-negative tumors, high nuclear grade, and younger age were all significantly associated with guideline concordance.† (By M.D. Anderson Cancer Center) Ladies who had tumors that communicated the estrogen receptor were essentially less likely to be given chemotherapy than ladies with estrogen receptor-negative tumors. â€Å"After adjusting for other known predictive factors, low tumor stage and advanced age were still significant predictors of discordance with hormone therapy guidelines, although marital status was not.† (By M.D. Anderson Cancer Center) Stress and Self esteem during treatment The essay I will be talking about is a study on â€Å"identify common stressors faced by breast cancer survivors involved in dragon boating, (2) examine the conceptual and statistical factor groupings of the stressors, (3) identify differences in stressor factors based on treatment characteristics, and (4) examine the associations between stressor factors and two indicators of self-esteem.† (By Journal of Women’s Health) Many women 1 in 9 will be diagnosed with breast cancer during their lifetime and 1 in 27 women will die from breast cancer. â€Å"Over the past 20 years, survival rates have improved considerably throughout the western world, contributing to many women living with the identity of a cancer survivor.† (By Journal of Women’s Health) A popular activity that many breast cancer survivors is dragon boating. â€Å"In dragon boating is associated with stressful experiences, including body-related anxiety and reminders of death, illness, and recurrence.† (By Journal of Women’s Health) The main focus on the study is how dragon boating racing is in common with stress and self esteem with breast cancer survivors. In the study there were 470 females that were in dragon boating and were given ten dollars to participate in the study. The women were between ages 20 and 80 years old. â€Å"Social stressors include making social connections with other survivors, difficulty discussing health information with family or friends, experiencing stress in social settings, and loss of friendships and social connections.† (By Journal of Women’s Health) The encounters of stress may not be the same for breast cancer survivors have experienced particular cancer medications and for those ladies who were analyzed with cancer for five years long compared with ladies analyzed not long ago. â€Å"Secondary aim of the current study was to quantitatively examine differences in stress experiences for diverse cancer characteristics, such as treatment types and time since diagnosis.† (By Journal of Women’s Health) During this study they had had this dragon boating group fill out this questionnaire. The 28 stressors physical, emotional, and intentions. â€Å"Additional stressors were participating in physical activity, participating in dragon boating, feelings of increased muscularity, and forming relationships with other survivors involved in physical activity.† (By Journal of Women’s Health) On the questionnaire when it asked about how often they are stressed and peoples answers ranged from 5 points scale from never to often. The next question was â€Å"if you have experienced breast cancer, how positive or negative are your emotions related to this experience?† (By Journal of Women’s Health) People had a score of -3 to positive 3. â€Å"Total score was used to examine the possible grouping of stressors, as scale scores (as opposed to factor scores) are easier to interpret and can allow comparisons with future studies using this scale.† (By Journal of Women’s Health) Self worth and self-esteem were made into a questionnaire from self-description questionnaires. â€Å"Participants were asked to think about themselves both physically and generally and respond to the items on 6- point scales ranging from 1 (false) to 6 (true).† (By Journal of Women’s Health) The highest score was on psychological wellbeing. Loss of companions or social associations, restricted contact with the healthcare framework, feeling underweight, and having lymphedema were never experienced by the slightest half of the ladies. â€Å"Survivors reported higher scores for exercise-related stressors than for the other categories of stressor, with these stressors being primarily positively appraised by the women.† (By Journal of Women’s Health) Lastly many women got high scores on physical self worth.